The fundamental difference between civil rights and civil liberties in in that one requires government action and the other precludes it. Civil rights are defined and enforced by law established by the majority, whereas civil liberties are defined in the Constitution (the Bill of Rights) and are therefore immutable (unchangeable) by the will of majority. The bill of rights list all the rights of an individual that do not require (and in fact prohibit) government action, such as the freedom of speech. Enforcement of civil rights, on the other hand, often conflicts with the Bill of Rights (freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution), such as in the case of the religious confectioner who refused to bake a cake for the same sex wedding. Another example of a conflict between these two concepts is the general policy of affirmative action. In resolution of such cases the highest court (SCOTUS) will always defer to the U.S. Constitution, meaning the civil liberties will always prevail over government imposed law. That is certainly true in the case of the Second Amendment also. The mostly fundamental difference between the Democrats and the Republicans in in the interpretation of the supremacy of the U.S. Constitution over the written law - The Democrats believing that the will of the majority should be overriding. I hope this helps your seemingly limited understanding of this very basic issue.